Styles allow the look of displayables to be customized. This is done by
changing the value of style properties for displayables. For example,
background property allows the background of a window
or button to be customized.
Style properties consist of two parts, a prefix that
specifies when the property is used, and the property itself. For example, a
hover_background property is used when a button is focused,
idle_background property is used when the button is unfocused.
background property sets the
hover_background, among others.)
While Ren'Py has over 100 style properties, only a few properties are
used in this section. Along with
background, we use
size as style properties. For a full list of style
properties, please read the style properties
Each displayable has a style built-into it. When the displayable is created, either directly or using the screen system, style properties can be supplied to it, and these styles are used to update the look of the displayable. In the following example:
image big hello world = Text("Hello, World", size=40)
size property is supplied to a Text displayable, allowing us to
change its text size. This will customize the look of the text displayable by
displaying the text 40 pixels high.
Similarly, when using Screen Language, each user interface statement takes relevant style properties:
screen big_hello_world: text "Hello, World" size 40
Ren'Py supports style inheritance, with each style having a single parent. If a style property is not defined in a style, the value of the property is inherited from the closest parent, grandparent, or other ancestor.
Each displayable takes a property named
style, which gives the parent
of the displayable's style:
image big hello world = Text("Hello World", style="big") screen hello_world: text "Hello, World" style "big"
style property is given, a parent is chosen based on the kind of
displayable be that has been supplied. The parent chosen can be influenced
by the style_prefix property of user interface statements
in the screen language.
When a style is defined without a parent being specified, a default
parent is chosen for the style. If the style contains an underscore (_)
in its name, the parent is named by removing everything up to and
including the first underscore. For example, a style named
will inherit from
button. This inheritance can be changed using the
style statement or by calling a method on a style object. When a style that
does not exist is used, and the style has an underscore in its name, Ren'Py will create
it using the default parent.
Style names beginning with an underscore are reserved for Ren'Py use.
As Ren'Py builds styles on startup, named styles should not be changed outside of init code.
config.developer is true, the style inspector can be used to
see which styles are being used by a displayable.
To activate the style inspector, place the mouse over a displayable, and press shift+I. Ren'Py will display a list of displayables that include the mouse position, in the order they are drawn to the screen. (That is, the last displayable is the one on top of the others.)
Click the name of a style to display the styles the displayable inherits from, and the properties each style contributes the to the final displayable.
The preferred way to define styles is through the style statement:
style my_text is text: size 40 font "gentium.ttf"
If a style does not exist, the style statement creates it. Otherwise, the existing style is modified by the style statement.
A style statement begins with the keyword
style and the name of the
style to define. This is followed on the first line by zero or more
clauses, and an optional colon.
If the colon is present, a block must follow. Each line of the block should contain one ore more clauses. Otherwise, the statement is complete.
The style statement accepts the following clauses:
Examples of style statements are:
# Creates a new style, inheriting from default. style big_red: size 40 # Updates the style. style big_red color "#f00" # Takes the properties of label_text from big_red, but only if we're # on a touch system. style label_text: variant "touch" take big_red
Style statements are always run at init-time. If a style statement is not in an init block, it is automatically placed init an init 0 block.
Named styles exists as fields on the global
style object. To create a new
style, create an instance of the Style class, and assign it to a field on the
init python: style.big_red = Style(style.default)
Style properties can be set by assigning to field-like properties of the Styles.
init python: style.big_red.color = "#f00" style.big_red.size = 42
Creates a new style object. Style properties can be assigned to the fields of this object.
This removes all style properties from this object. Values will be inherited from this object's parent.
Sets the parent of this style object to parent.
This takes all style properties from other. other must be a style object.
Indexed styles are lightweight styles that can be used to customize the look of a displayable based on the data supplied to that displayable. An index style is created by indexing a style object with a string or integer. If an indexed style does not exist, indexing creates it.:init python: style.button['Foo'].background = "#f00" style.button['Bar'].background = "#00f"
An index style is used by supplying the indexed style to a displayable.:screen indexed_style_test: vbox: textbutton "Foo" style style.button["Foo"] textbutton "Bar" style style.button["Bar"]
It's often desirable to allow the user to customize aspects of the user interface that are best expressed as styles. For example, a creator may want to give players of his game the ability to adjust the look, color, and size of the text. Style preferences allow for this customization.
A style preference is a preference that controls one or more style properties. A style preference has a name and one or more alternatives. At any given time, one of the alternatives is the selected alternative for the style preference. The selected alternative is saved in the persistent data, and defaults to the first alternative registered for a style property.
An alternative has one or more associations of style, property, and value associated with it, and represents a promise that when the alternative becomes the selected alternative for the style preference, the property on the style will be assigned the given value. This occurs when Ren'Py first initializes, and then whenever a new alternative is selected.
One should ensure that every alternative for a given style preference updates the same set of styles and properties. Otherwise, some styles may not be assigned values, and the result will not be deterministic.
The style preference functions are:
StylePreference(preference, alternative) link
An action that causes alternative to become the selected alternative for the given style preference.
Returns a string giving the name of the selected alternative for the named style preference.
register_style_preference(preference, alternative, style, property, value) link
Registers information about an alternative for a style preference.
set_style_preference(preference, alternative) link
Sets the selected alternative for the style preference.
Here's an example of registering a style property that allows the user to choose between large, simple text and smaller outlined text.
init python: renpy.register_style_preference("text", "decorated", style.say_dialogue, "outlines", [ (1, "#000", 0, 0) ]) renpy.register_style_preference("text", "decorated", style.say_dialogue, "size", 22) renpy.register_style_preference("text", "large", style.say_dialogue, "outlines", [ ]) renpy.register_style_preference("text", "large", style.say_dialogue, "size", 24)
The following code will allow the user to select these alternatives using buttons:
textbutton "Decorated" action StylePreference("text", "decorated") textbutton "Large" action StylePreference("text", "large")