`Matrix`(l) link

This represents a 4x4 matrix, that is used in various places in Ren'Py.

When used to transform coordinates, the 16 elements of this matrix are:

```xdx, xdy, xdz, xdw,
ydx, ydy, ydz, ydw,
zdx, zdy, zdz, zdw,
wdx, wdy, wdz, wdw
```

where x' = xdx * x + xdy * y + xdz * z + xdw * w, where x is the original value of x and x' is the transformed value, and similarly for x, y, z, and w. This is usually applied to a position where w is 1, allowing any combination of translation, rotation, and scaling to be expressed in a single matrix.

When used to transform colors, the 16 elements of this matrix are:

```rdr, rdg, rdb, rda,
gdr, gdg, gdg, gda,
bdr, bdg, bdb, bda,
```

For the red, green, blue, and alpha channels.

Matrix objects can be multiplied using the Python multiplication operator, to generate a matrix that performs both operations. The order in which the matrixes appear can matter. Assuming v is a position or color being transformed:

```(step2 * step1) * v
```

is equivalent to:

```step2 * (step1 * v)
```
l

This can be a list of 4, 9, or 16 numbers that is used to introduce this matrix. If not the full 16, the top-left corner of the matrix is initialized, with zdz and wdw set to 1.0 if not given. For example:

```Matrix([ 1, 2, 3, 4 ])
```

would result in the Matrix:

```1.0, 2.0, 0.0, 0.0,
3.0, 4.0, 0.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0,
0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0,
```
`Matrix.``identity`() link

Returns an identity matrix.

`Matrix.``offset`(x, y, z) link

Returns a matrix that offsets the vertex by a fixed amount.

`Matrix.``perspective`(w, h, n, p, f) link

Returns a matrix suitable for the perspective projection of an image in the Ren'Py coordinate system. This is a view into the a coordinate system where, where when z=0, (0, 0) corresponds to the top-left corner of the screen, and (w, h) corresponds to the bottom-right corner of the screen.

w, h
The width and height of the input plane, in pixels.
n
The distance of the near plane from the camera.
p
How far the z=0 plane is from the camera. This is also where one virtual pixel is one coordinate unit in x and y.
f
The distance of the far plane from the camera.
`Matrix.``rotate`(x, y, z) link

Returns a matrix that rotates the displayable around the origin.

x, y, z
The amount to rotate around the origin, in degrees.

The rotations are applied in order:

• A clockwise rotation by x degrees in the Y/Z plane.
• A clockwise rotation by y degrees in the Z/X plane.
• A clockwise rotation by z degrees in the X/Y plane.
`Matrix.``scale`(x, y, z) link

Returns a matrix that scales the displayable.

x, y, z
The factor to scale each axis by.